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Steel

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Steel is a general term for iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content of between 0.02% and 2.11%.
Other elements are sometimes added according to its use, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten etc.

Popular Steel Alloys:

*Classified by carbon content:
Low carbon steel: carbon content is generally less than 0.25% (mass fraction);
Medium carbon steel: carbon content is generally 0.25%~0.60% (mass fraction);
High carbon steel: The carbon content is generally higher than 0.60% (mass fraction).

*Classified by quality:
Quality steel (P, S ≤ 0.035%)
High-quality steel (P ≤ 0.035%, S ≤ 0.030%)

*Forming method:
Forged steel; cast steel; hot rolled steel; cold drawn steel

Heat treatment of steel:
The heat treatment of steel refers to a process of changing the microstructure of steel by heating, holding, and cooling the steel in a solid state to obtain desired properties.

Toughness, hardness and wear resistance are several of the properties obtained by heat treatment. To obtain these characteristics, hardening, tempering, annealing and surface hardening in heat treatment are required.


  • Hardening - The metal is uniformly heated to a suitable temperature, and then rapidly immersed in water or oil to quench, or cooled in air or in a freezing zone to obtain the desired hardness of the metal.
  • Tempering - Steel parts become brittle after hardening, and the stress caused by quenching and quenching can cause the steel parts to be broken by light tapping. To eliminate brittleness, tempering can be used. Tempering is the reheating of the steel to the appropriate temperature or color and then quenching. Although tempering slightly reduces the hardness of the steel, it will increase the toughness of the steel and reduces its brittleness.
  • Annealing - Annealing is a method of eliminating the intrinsic stress and refining grains of steel. The annealing method is to heat the steel to a temperature higher than the critical temperature, and then put it into dry ash, lime, asbestos or enclosed in the furnace to cool it slowly.
  • Hardness - is the ability of a material to resist the penetration of foreign objects. The most common method of testing the hardness of steel is to use a trowel to rub on the edge of the workpiece, and the depth of the scratches on the surface is used to determine the hardness. This method is not scientific. It is extremely accurate to test with a hardness tester and is a commonly used method for modern test hardness. The most commonly used test method is the Rockwell hardness test. The Rockwell hardness tester uses the depth of the diamond to penetrate the metal to determine the hardness of the metal. The greater the penetration depth, the smaller the hardness. The depth at which the diamond rushes into the metal can be pointed out by the pointer to the correct number, which is called the Rockwell hardness value.
  • Forging - is a method of hammering a metal into a certain shape.When the steel is heated to the forging temperature, it can be engaged in forging, bending, drawing, forming, and the like. Most steels are easy to forge when heated to bright cherry. A common method of increasing the hardness of steel is quenching.
  • Brittleness - indicates the property of metal to be easily broken. The brittleness of cast iron is large, and it may even break when it falls. Brittleness is closely related to hardness, and materials with high hardness are usually brittle.
  • Ductility - (also known as softness) is a property in which a metal is permanently deformed by an external force without being broken, and the ductile metal can be drawn into a thin line.
  • Flexibility - is a property in which a metal is deformed by an external force and returns to its original shape when the external force is removed. Spring steel is a very flexible material.
  • Malleability - Also known as forgeability, is another representation of metal ductility or softness. Extensibility is a property in which a metal is subjected to hammer forging or rolling and is not broken when deformed.
  • Toughness - The ability of a metal to withstand shock. Toughness and brittleness are just the opposite.

Application:
  • Automobile parts
  • Aircraft components
  • Construction equipment
  • Machine tooling
  • Crankshafts
  • ..........


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