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CNC machining center maintenance methods
2020-06-11

The machining center is a high-efficiency and high-precision CNC machine tool. The workpiece can be processed in multiple procedures in one clamping, and it also has a tool library and automatic tool change. From the appearance, the machining center can be divided into vertical, horizontal and composite machining centers. The main axis of the vertical machining center is perpendicular to the worktable, which is mainly suitable for processing plate and shell workpieces, and can also be used for mold processing. The spindle axis of the horizontal machining center is parallel to the table surface of the worktable. Most of its worktables are CNC rotary tables controlled by servo motors. In a single clamping of the workpiece, the worktable rotation can realize the processing of multiple processing surfaces. It is suitable for Box type workpiece processing.

Correct operation and maintenance can prevent abnormal wear of CNC equipment and avoid sudden failure of equipment. This work must be started from the factory management, highly valued and executed! Here, there are some cnc precision machining daily maintenance experience, everyone can understand the reference.


Basic requirements

 

1. The numerical control equipment is required to avoid use in places with damp, excessive dust and corrosive gas;

2. Avoid direct sunlight and other heat radiation, precision CNC equipment should be far away from equipment with large vibration, such as punching machine, forging equipment, etc.;

3. The operating temperature of the equipment should be controlled between 15 degrees and 35 degrees. The precision processing temperature should be controlled at about 20 degrees, and the temperature fluctuation should be strictly controlled;

4. In order to avoid the impact of large power fluctuations (more than plus or minus 10%) and possible instantaneous interference signals, CNC equipment generally uses dedicated lines for power supply (such as separate from the low-voltage distribution room for CNC machine tools), and additional voltage stabilization devices Etc., can reduce the impact of power supply quality and electrical interference.

 

Daily maintenance

1. Daily cleaning of machine tool dust and iron filings: including machine tool control panel, spindle taper hole, tool car, tool head and taper shank, tool magazine tool arm and tool magazine, turret; XY axis sheet metal shield, machine tool Internal flexible hose, tank chain device, chip flute, etc.;

2. Check the liquid level of lubricating oil to ensure the lubrication of the machine tool;

3. Check whether the coolant in the coolant tank is sufficient and not enough to add in time;

4. Check whether the air pressure is normal;

5. Check whether the air blowing in the cone hole in the spindle is normal, wipe the cone hole in the spindle with a clean cotton cloth, and spray light oil;

6. Clean the arms and tools of the tool magazine, especially the claws;

7. Check all the signal lights, whether the warning lights are normal;

8. Check whether there is leakage in the hydraulic unit tube;

9. Clean and sweep the machine after the daily work is completed;

10. Keep the environment around the machine clean and tidy.

 

Monthly maintenance

1. Check the lubrication of the shaft track, the track surface must ensure good lubrication;

2. Inspection, cleaning limit switch and bumper;

3. Check whether the oil in the oil cup of the knife cylinder is enough, and add it in time;

4. Check whether the sign and warning nameplate on the machine are clear and exist.

 

Annual professional maintenance or repair

Professional maintenance or repair work should be carried out by professional engineers.

 

1. The grounding protection system should have good continuity to ensure personal safety;

2. Periodic inspection of gas components such as circuit breakers, contactors, single-phase or three-phase arc extinguishers. If the wiring is loose or the noise is too loud, find out the cause and eliminate the hidden danger;

3. Make sure that the cooling fan in the electric cabinet runs normally, otherwise it may cause damage to the vitality parts;

4. The fuse is blown and the air switch trips frequently. The cause should be found and eliminated in time;

5. Check the vertical accuracy of each axis and adjust the geometric accuracy of the machine tool. Restore or meet the requirements of the machine tool. Because geometric accuracy is the basis of the comprehensive performance of the machine tool. For example, poor XZ and YZ perpendicularity will affect the coaxiality and symmetry of the processed workpiece, and poor perpendicularity of the spindle to the table will affect the parallelism of the processed workpiece and so on. Therefore, the restoration of geometric accuracy is the focus of our maintenance;

6. Check the wear and clearance of the motor and the screw of each axis, and check whether the support bearings at both ends of each axis are damaged. When the coupling or bearing is damaged, it will increase the noise of the machine tool operation, affect the transmission accuracy of the machine tool, damage the screw cooling seal ring, cause cutting fluid leakage, and seriously affect the life of the screw and spindle;

7. Check the protective cover of each axis and replace it if necessary. The protective cover is not good and directly accelerates the wear of the guide rail. If there is a large deformation, it will not only increase the load of the machine tool, but also cause greater damage to the guide rail;

8. The straightening of the screw leads to deformation of the screw caused by some users after the collision of the machine tool or the gap of the iron plug is not good, which directly affects the machining accuracy of the machine tool. We first loosen the screw to make it in a natural state, and then install the screw in accordance with the maintenance regulations to ensure that the screw is not subject to tangential force as much as possible during movement, so that the screw is also in a natural state during processing;

9. Check and adjust the belt drive system of the machine tool spindle, properly adjust the tightness of the V belt to prevent the machine tool from slipping or losing rotation, replace the spindle V belt if necessary, and check the pressure belt of the 1000r/min spindle high and low gear conversion The amount of wheel cylinder oil. Add when necessary, oil shortage will cause failures in low-grade conversion, seriously affect the surface roughness during milling, and reduce the cutting torque;

10. Cleaning and adjustment of the tool magazine. Adjust the rotation of the tool magazine so that it is parallel to the table, replace the circlip if necessary, adjust the angle of the main shaft orientation bridge and the rotation coefficient of the tool magazine, and add lubricating grease to each moving part;

11. Prevent the system from overheating: Check whether the cooling fans on the CNC cabinet work normally. Check whether the air duct filter is clogged. If there is too much dust accumulation on the filter net, if it is not cleaned in time, it will cause the temperature in the CNC cabinet to be too high;

12. Regular maintenance of the input/output device of the CNC system: check whether the transmission signal line of the machine tool is damaged, whether the interface, screw nut of the connector is loose and fall off, whether the network cable is inserted firmly, the router is cleaned and maintained, etc.;

13. Periodic inspection and replacement of DC motor brushes: Excessive wear of DC motor brushes affects the performance of the motor and even causes motor damage. To this end, the motor brushes should be regularly inspected and replaced. CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, machining centers, etc., should be inspected once a year;

14. Periodically check and replace the storage battery: In the general numerical control system, a rechargeable battery maintenance circuit is provided for the CMOS RAM storage device to ensure that the memory content can be maintained during the system is not powered. Under normal circumstances, even if it has not failed, it should be replaced once a year to ensure the normal operation of the system. The replacement of the battery should be carried out under the power supply of the numerical control system to prevent the information in the RAM from being lost during the replacement;

15. Clean the electrical components in the control cabinet, check and fasten the tightening state of the terminals; clean and clean the control modules, circuit boards, fans, air filters, and heat dissipation devices of the CNC system; clean the internal components and circuit boards of the operation panel. Fan, check the tightness of the connectors.

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